How Experienced Teachers Incorporate Kinesthetic Learning into Academic Lessons Dale Cohen, Rachel Gandin, Elizabeth Hartofilis, Idel Rivas, and Grace Thornton

Background/Introduction

This paper explores how experienced teachers use kinesthetic methods in their academic instruction.  As education graduate students, our interest in kinesthetic learning stems from a concern with classroom management and discipline, “one of the most daunting challenges” for new teachers (Peterson, 2004).   A preliminary investigation led to the finding that “the best discipline is good curriculum,” that is, a curriculum that engages students and does not leave them bored (Salas, 2004).  We surmised that the least boring or, conversely, the most engaging lessons often are kinesthetic in nature.  Yet while our graduate studies cover a great deal of material, none of our courses specifically trains us to incorporate kinesthetic teaching practices.  So we turned to the experts – experienced elementary school teachers.

Research Question

How do experienced teachers incorporate kinesthetic learning in their academic lessons?

Review of Literature and Popular Media

Regular physical activity promotes physical fitness (Ammerman, Ballard, Evenson & Lee, 2009); (Gartrell & Sonsteng, 2008); (Gaus & Simpson, 2009); (Nye, 2008); (Pica, 2006), and physical fitness, in turn, may improve brain function (Anonymous, 2008); (Viadero, 2008); (Hall, 2007); (Maeda & Murata, 2004); (California Department of Education, 2005); (National Association for Sport and Physical Education, 2002).  Many experts therefore believe that physical fitness may facilitate learning (Clancy & Hruska, 2008); (Anonymous, 2009); (Lounsbery & Smith, 2009); (Tummers, 2005); (but see Chalmers & Martin, 2007).  Given this link between fitness and learning, some educators believe that using kinesthetic methods in academic lessons will encourage students to “get moving” and “perform better academically” (Collins, Donnelly & Sherman, 2007).

Others advocate the use of kinesthetic methods in academic lessons based on their belief that some students have a kinesthetic “learning style,” and that these students are better learners when material is presented kinesthetically, compared to other modes of presentation (Dunn & Honigsfeld, 2009).  The conscious targeting of certain students for kinesthetic teaching methods has many boosters (see, e.g., Dunn & Honigsfeld, 2009); (Dunn & Dunn, 2005); (Burke & Dunn, 2002).   In this vein, some researchers have found that underachieving students are most likely to benefit from kinesthetic teaching methods (Ansalone & Lister, 2006); (Burke & Dunn, 2002); (Dunn & Dunn, 2005).  The popularity of kinesthetic teaching techniques has led to a thriving industry devoted to publishing learning-styles tests and guidebooks for teachers and offering professional development workshops for teachers and educators.  (cf. Bjork, McDaniel, Pashler, & Rohrer, 2008); (e.g., Glynn, 2001; http://www.mindsinmotion.org/home.html).

Yet some educators fear that classifying certain students as “kinesthetic learners” is tantamount to labeling them inferior (see NPR News, 2008).   In fact, the idea of kinesthetic teaching according to learning style does have detractors (see Greenfield, 2007);  (Willingham, 2008).  Recently, some researchers have questioned the conventional wisdom that some students will learn better when material is presented kinesthetically (see Britt, 2009).  According to Bjork, McDaniel, Pashler, & Rohrer (2008), few studies have used valid research methods to test the idea of using learning styles in education.

At least one expert believes that while some children may learn best kinesthetically, teaching a child in his or her “best modality” does not affect academic achievement.  In his view, teachers should teach according to the content’s best modality, namely, lessons are most effective when the content, rather than the student’s “style,” drives the choice of modality (see Britt, 2009).

Regardless of these conflicting beliefs about the optimal use of kinesthetic methods, many subject matters lend themselves to such techniques.

Science

Bosse (2009) demonstrates how teachers can bring the study of science into almost, if not every, aspect of the classroom.  Teachers can set up a discovery area in the classroom, thus promoting many questions through kinesthetic activities (Bosse 10).  Scales, weights and graph paper to record findings can increase math skills, also by way of kinesthetic activities.  A simple bird feeder that can be viewed from a classroom window can become the study of ornithology if students are given a pair of binoculars, a guide book and paper to record their findings (Bosse 11).   Criminale, Esfan, & Mathew (2006) describe how science teachers took their students bowling to study physics concepts.  Tummers (2005) suggests using yoga to teach young students about the anatomy of the heart.

History/Social Studies

A teacher of gifted students changed an ordinary social studies lesson into something more memorable by turning her student’s desks on their sides, covering them with old cardboard, replacing the student’s coats with newspapers and exchanged their regular snacks with stale bread (McClatchy Company, 2010).  When the students returned to the classroom, they entered “Hooverville,” a shantytown that they were studying (McClatchy Company, 2010).

Math

Math in the Garden is a book of  35 hands-on “gardening” activities to teach numbers and mathematical concepts such as algebra, measurement, geometry and data analysis (White, 2006).  In one activity, for example, students measure the perimeter of leaves; in another, they search for mystery spots in a giant garden grid to learn coordinate grids (White, 2006).  Biffle (2007) demonstrates a “whole brain” lesson in the order of operations.  In her video, she teaches sixth-grade students using hand gestures to show several concepts, including the four operations (adding, subtracting, multiplying, dividing) and a mnemonic device (“please excuse my dear aunt Sally”), which helps students remember parenthesis, exponent, multiplication, division, addition, and subtraction, each of which has its own gesture.  The class is loud, but orderly, and her students appear completely engaged in the lesson (Biffle, 2007).  In Stand and Deliver, a high school math teacher uses fingers to teach multiplication (Musca & Menendez, 1988).

Reading Comprehension

Block, Parris, & Whitely (2008) developed the Comprehension Process Motions (CPM) method for teaching young readers to learn reading comprehension.  The CPM method teaches students kinesthetic hand movements that signal their understanding or lack of understanding of the text.   The CPM method teaches students to use hand signals to indicate “finding main ideas, inferring, making predictions, and clarifying.”   (Block, Parris & Whitely, 2008).  According to Block, Parris & Whitely,

These lessons stimulate students’ active learning and provide young readers with concrete images to learn how, when, and where to initiate comprehension processes. They also enable students to demonstrate that they are metacognitively aware that they are using a specific process and to signal their teachers when they have independently transferred and used a specific comprehension process when reading independently.

Block, C., Parris, S., & Whiteley, C. (2008). CPMs: A Kinesthetic Comprehension Strategy. The Reading Teacher, 61(6), 460-470.

Data Collection Methods

Data collection took place in the winter and spring of 2010.  We began our data collection by compiling and reviewing relevant peer-reviewed literature and popular media, including articles, books, movies, podcasts, promotional websites, and YouTube videofiles.  Later, we observed elementary school teachers instruct students using kinesthetic techniques.  Armed with the knowledge gleaned from these endeavors, we compiled the following list of teacher-interview questions:

1.      How do you incorporate kinesthetic learning into your academic lessons?

2.      How often do you use kinesthetic lessons in your classroom?

3.      For which subjects do you use these lessons?

4.      Have you encountered any challenges when using these lessons?  If so, what kinds?

5.      How do students respond to these lessons?

6.      Would you recommend these types of lessons to a new teacher?  Why or why not?

7.      Do school administrators encourage/discourage these kinds of lessons?

8.      Do you receive any special training or support for these kinds of  lessons?

9.      Do you have any advice for a new teacher with regard to kinesthetic lessons?

We also compiled a list of questions for an interview with an elementary school principal:

1.           Do you encourage teachers to use kinesthetic techniques in their lessons?

2.           Do teachers receive formal training in kinesthetic teaching methods?

3.           Do you think teachers should receive such training?

4.           Do you think kinesthetic teaching techniques that require students to learn in an active and physical way affect the students’ motivation to learn?

5.          Students learn in different ways, such as visually, auditorily or kinesthetically. As a principal, do you encourage teachers to present material in ways that match an individual student’s “learning style”?

We then located four experienced elementary school teachers and one principal who agreed to be interviewed.  Before conducting the interviews, we sent a copy of the interview questions to each participant so that she could familiarize herself with the questions and think about her answers.  One teacher submitted her responses through email; the other three teachers and the principal permitted face-to-face interviews.

Data Analysis Methods

As noted above, we began our data analysis with a critical review of the peer reviewed literature and popular media, looking for common themes, biases, contradictions, and missing viewpoints.  With the knowledge gained from these sources, we compiled our interview questions.  When all the interview data was collected, we compared the responses.

Findings

Some researchers suggest that teaching students according to their personal learning preferences — such as kinesthetic, visual, or auditory – will improve academic performance.  In reality, none of the teachers that we interviewed suggested tailoring each lesson according to each student’s preferred style.  Rather, these teachers accommodate the varying needs of their students by using multisensory instruction.  For example, a teacher might present a lecture on angles (auditory), using the blackboard (visual), and then have the students create an angle with their arms (kinesthetic).

We found that kinesthetic techniques can be used in every subject area, and that teachers employ these techniques in innumerable ways with varying degrees of frequency.  School administrators tend to encourage kinesthetic teaching methods, but do not provide for special teacher training in this area.  Such training is probably unnecessary, however, since creative kinesthetic lesson plan ideas abound on the internet and experienced teachers seem happy to share their ideas and experiences.

The experienced educators and much of the peer-reviewed literature stated that kinesthetic techniques are particularly beneficial for underachieving students, students at risk of academic failure, and students with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).   As one might expect, kinesthetic techniques may be less successful with students with motor-planning issues or physical impairments, or with very shy students.  Yet these challenges are surmountable. Teachers can modify their lessons to fit the unique needs of their students – kinesthetic methods do not necessarily require physical strength, coordination, or theatrical performance.

Conclusions

As elementary students a few decades ago, we learned to read, write, add and subtract sitting at desks aligned in neat rows, looking at dittos with faded purple ink.   This traditional set up may have worked for us, but undoubtedly did not work for everyone. Today, teachers are expected to engage all their students, allowing them to learn with all their senses and to move purposefully around the classroom as part of the learning process.  Experienced educators understand this and frequently employ kinesthetic methods in their lessons.  Not every lesson lends itself to this type of teaching, but many do.  For inexperienced teachers who are unsure of how to incorporate physical activity into their academic lessons, experienced teachers are excellent sources of ideas.  So are books, the internet, and the students themselves.  Kinesthetic methods may excite our students about the material they are studying, and thus may lead not only to better behavior, but better learning as well.

References

Ammerman, A., Ballard, K., Evenson, K., & Lee, G. (2009). Implementation of a School-based State Policy to Increase Physical Activity.  Journal of School Health, 79, 5, pp. 231 – 238.

Ansalone, George & Lister, Dena.  (2006). Utilizing Modality Theory to Achieve Academic Success. Educational Research Quarterly, 30(2), 19-29.

Anonymous. Exercise Builds Strong Brains, Too. (2008, March). Leadership for Student Activities, 36(7), 41.

Anonymous. Physical Activity and Academic Achievement. (2009). Journal of Physical Education, Recreation & Dance, 80(6), 3,62.

Biffle, C. (2007). Whole Brain Teaching: 6th Grade, Classroom Management. [Video File].  Retrieved from http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=XroJtR9gQc8.

Bjork, R.,McDaniel, M., Pashler, H. & Rohrer, D., & Bjork, R.. (2008). Learning Styles: Concepts and Evidence. Psychological Science in the Public Interest, 9(3), 105-119.

Block, C., Parris, S., & Whiteley, C. (2008). CPMs: A Kinesthetic Comprehension Strategy. The Reading Teacher, 61(6), 460-470.

Britt, M. (2009, March 29)  The learning styles myth: an interview with Daniel Willingham Retrieved from http://www.thepsychfiles.com/2009/03/episode-90-the-learning-styles-myth-an-interview-with-daniel-willingham/.

Bosse, S., Jacobs, G., & Anderson, T. (2009). Science in the Air. Young Children, 64(6), 10-15.

California Department of Education (2005), March 3). A Study of the relationship between physical fitness and academic achievement in California using 2004 test results. Retreived March 3, 2005, from http://www.cde.ca.gov/ta/tg/pf/documents/2004pftresults.doc.

Chalmers, G. & Martin, L. (2007). The Relationship Between Academic Achievement and Physical Fitness. Physical Educator, 64(4), 214-221.

Clancy, M. & Hruska, B. (2008). Integrating Movement and Learning in Elementary and Middle School. Strategies, 21(5), 13-20.

Collins, B., Donnelly, D. & Sherman, K. (2007, March). Let’s Get Moving! Teaching Pre K – 8, 37(6), 48-49.

Criminale, C., Esfan, N. & Mathew, M. (2006). Energy Bowlerama. Science Scope, 30(2), 30-33.

Dunn, K. & Dunn, R. (2005). Thirty-five Years of Research on Perceptual Strengths: Essential Strategies to Promote Learning. The Clearing House, 78(6), 273-276.

Dunn, R. & Honigsfeld, A. (2009). Learning-Style Responsive Approaches for Teaching Typically Performing and At-Risk Adolescents. The Clearing House, 82(5), 220-224.

Gartrell, D. & Sonsteng, K. (2008). Promote Physical Activity–It’s Proactive Guidance. Young Children, 63(2), 51-53.

Gaus, M. & Simpson, C. (2009).  Integrating Physical Activity into Academic Pursuits.  Kappa Delta Pi Record.

Glynn, C. (2001). Carol Out of the Box [Video file]. Retrieved from http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ALgY0BywKy0

Greenfield, S.  (2007, July). Style without substance. The Times Educational Supplement,(4747), 24.

Hall, E. M. 2007. Integration: Helping to get our kids moving and learning. The Physical Educator, 64,(3)123-128.

Lounsbery, M. & Smith, N. (2009). Promoting Physical Education: The Link to Academic Achievement. Journal of Physical Education, Recreation & Dance, 80(1), 39-43. 

Maeda, J. & Murata, N. (2004). Collaborating with Classroom Teachers to Increase Daily Physical Activity: The GEAR Program.  Journal of Physical Education, Recreation & Dance.  75, 5, pp. 42 – 47.

The McClatchy Company, (2010, February 2).  Lexington 1 Teacher of the Year: “I love learning new things.”  Retrieved March 3, 2010 from http://www.thestate.com/2010/02/11/1148954/lex-1-teacher-of-the-year-i-love.html.

Mears, B. (2003). The ABCs of effective reading integration.  Teaching Elementary Physical Education, 14(5), 36-39.

Musca, C. (Producer) & Menendez, R. (Director). (1988). Stand and Deliver, [Motion Picture].  United States: Warner Brothers.

National Association for Sport and Physical Education (2002).  New study supports physically fit kids perform better academically. NASPE News, 62 (Winter), 16.

NPR News in association with the African American Public Radio Consortium (Producer). (2008, May 6). Pastor Raises Questions about Learning Styles. Tell Me More [Audio Podcast]. Retrieved from http://www.npr.org/templates/story/story.php?storyId=90216209&sc=emaf.

Nye, S.. (2008). Fun Club: A Physical Activity Program for Elementary Schools. Journal of Physical Education, Recreation & Dance, 79(1), 36-38,44.

Peterson, B. (2004). The Challenge of Classroom Discipline. In The New Teacher Book: Finding purpose, balance and hope during your first years in the classroom (pp. 174-175). Milwaukee, WI: Rethinking Schools Ltd.

Pica, R. (2006). Physical Fitness and the Early Childhood Curriculum.  Young Children, 61(3), 12.

Salas, K. D. (2004). The Best Discipline is Good Curriculum. In The New Teacher Book: Finding purpose, balance, and hope during your first years in the classroom (p. 185). Milwaukee, WI: Rethinking Schools Ltd.

Tummers, N.  (2005). Yoga for Your Students. Strategies, 19(2), 35-37.

Viadero, D.  (2008, February). Exercise Seen as Priming Pump For Students’ Academic Strides: Case grows stronger for physical activity’s link to improved brain function. Education Week, 27(23), 14- 15.

White, J. (2006).  Math in the Garden. Burlington, VT:  National Gardening Association, Inc.

Willingham, D. (2008, August 21). Learning styles don’t exist.  Retrieved from  http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=sIv9rz2NTUk.

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6 responses to “How Experienced Teachers Incorporate Kinesthetic Learning into Academic Lessons Dale Cohen, Rachel Gandin, Elizabeth Hartofilis, Idel Rivas, and Grace Thornton

  1. I thought the video had some great advice and facts about Kinesthetic Learning. I agree with the statement that the benefits outweigh the disadvantages. Children will remember the activity, relate to the material being taught and absorb the facts like a sponge. The only downfall that is a concern is with children who are introverted and shy. They might have a hard time being in front of the class but these activities can, in turn, help those types of children come out of their shells at a young age and get used to the attention.

  2. I think these teachers are giving their students a great advantage by incorporating kinesthetic activities into every subject they teach. Although various learning styles exist in each classroom, it is important to get kids up and moving in order to keep them engaged. It was great to see specific examples of kinesthetic activities that can be done in each subject area.

    I think one teacher made a good point by mentioning how beneficial this type of learning style can be for ESL students. If understanding English is a problem for a student, a lesson would be much more memorable when he or she has the opportunity to use his or her body to learn and make connections, rather than struggling to understand a lecture.

  3. Kinesthetic Learning along with differentiated instruction plays an integral part of a child’s learning process. Being able to hear, see, write, and do hands on activities helps students remember and understand a various concepts in many subject areas. In the past we relied on rote memorization based on facts. Today, it’s great to see that teachers are utilizing songs, dances, dialogues, and questioning into their lessons. Instead of sitting for 42 minutes being lectured and bored, Kinesthetics has children moving around doing different tasks. For example, children can use (beans, buttons, cubes, or other counters) to practice counting & grouping by 10’s. Here students are actively involved in their own learning process.
    The future is here and Smart Boards are being installed in many school districts around the country. This interactive board is a great tool to use for many subjects. Children can play games while learning new concepts and making connections to what they already know. Student’s can create their own Power Points and Videos which reinforces what they learned in the classroom. Furthermore, children learn by hearing their classmates’ explanations.

  4. I couldn’t agree with this idea more. The best way to keep students engaged and excited is to keep them involved, active and moving. Children aren’t meant to sit still for long periods of time, and there is really no reason for this. It has actually been shown that when students have an activity (movement) that they did tied to a lesson it helps them to retain and understand the material covered.

  5. I am also a supporter of this method of learning. Getting the students involved in hands on motivational learning will only help them to retain the information. Often times teachers lecture their students about a topic losing half of the students interest and attention. By using Kinesthetic teaching it engages the students from the beginning making learning fun. I feel more teachers should try to incoroprate this type of learning in their lesson plans.

  6. I think using any of Howard Gardner’s multiple intelligences in the classroom are great ideas, it really reaches out to all students and their own learning needs in the classroom. Using movement is a great way to learn and also break up the day to move and even release some energy. All young students should have the opportunity to learn by moving though out the day.

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